Neuronal development is a pro-survival process that involves neurite growth, synaptogenesis, synaptic and neuronal pruning. During development, these processes can be controlled by temporal gene expression that is orchestrated by both long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs. To examine the interplay between these different components of the transcriptome during neuronal differentiation, we carried out mRNA, long non-coding RNA and microRNA expression profiling on maturing primary neurons. Subsequent gene ontology analysis revealed regulation of axonogenesis and dendritogenesis processes by these differentially expressed mRNAs and non-coding RNAs. Temporally regulated mRNAs and their associated long non-coding RNAs were significantly over-represented in proliferation and differentiation associated signalling, cell adhesion and neurotrophin signalling pathways. Verification of expression of the Axin2, Prkcb, Cntn1, Ncam1, Negr1, Nrxn1 and Sh2b3 mRNAs and their respective long non-coding RNAs in an in vitro model of ischemic-reperfusion injury showed an inverse expression profile to the maturation process, thus suggesting their role(s) in maintaining neuronal structure and function. Furthermore, we propose that expression of the cell adhesion molecules, Ncam1 and Negr1 might be tightly regulated by both long non-coding RNAs and microRNAs.